The text is designed so that you get a broader picture of the transport process itself, accompanied by the necessary documentation.

The transport of goods is the property of trade.

International road transport of goods is the transport of goods between legal or natural persons of different countries and is related to international trade, which is the only cause of its smaller or larger volume.

Carriers transport goods in international road transport in accordance with the CMR Convention.


The CMR Convention dates from May 19, 1956, and entered into force on July 2, 1961. years.

Almost all European countries are signatories to this Convention, and in recent years some countries outside Europe, such as Morocco and Kazakhstan.

The consignor is the person who has entered into a contract with the carrier. It should be borne in mind that this person is not always the same person designated as the consignor in the CMR consignment note. The consignee of the goods is the person designated as the consignee in the CMR consignment note and who receives the goods. The CMR Convention automatically applies to any contract of international carriage by road between two different States of which at least one is a signatory to the Convention, even when the goods vehicle crosses one part of the road by sea, rail or river.

The following shipments are exempt from the provisions of the CMR Convention:

  • furniture transport,
  • transportation of funeral shipments transported abroad,
  • international transport for own needs,
  • transport under the international postal convention,
  • cabotage.

The CMR consignment note is compiled in four original copies (NEA & IRU, 2003):

  • the first copy (red) is handed over to the sender after the carrier takes over the goods,
  • the second copy (blue) is handed over to the consignee when the goods reach their destination,
  • the third copy (green) is for the carrier,
  • the fourth copy (black) is for the carrier, too.

In doing so, the second, third and fourth copies must be in the vehicle during transport.



A bill of lading is a document by which the shipowner confirms that he has received certain goods on board for transport and hands them over to the authorized consignee of the bill of lading, under the conditions specified therein. The bill of lading is the most important document in the maritime transport of goods and is categorized as the most important documents in maritime transport. In addition to the term bill of lading in our language, the word konosman is also used, which comes from the Latin word cognoscere, which means recognition, confirmation. On a global scale, the most commonly used name is "Bill of Lading" (B / L), which translated from English means confirmation of boarding. The bill of lading has a threefold function: - It confirms the existence of a contract of carriage by sea - It serves as proof that the goods listed in the bill of lading were received for transport - It establishes the obligation of the shipowner to deliver the goods to the holder. 2 It is the duty of the shipowner to issue a bill of lading at the request of the shipper when the loading of the cargo is completed. A bill of lading is a security that can be issued in the name, by order or by the bearer. A bill of lading is a written document with the properties of a security by which the shipowner or the master of the ship confirms the receipt of the cargo on the ship, namely the cargo specified in the bill of lading and in the external condition specified in the bill of lading. This confirmation of the receipt of the cargo on the ship is a continuation of the shipowner's obligation to transport that cargo as indicated in the bill of lading. The shipowner is also obliged by the bill of lading to hand over the cargo in the port of unloading to the person who correctly identifies himself in the port of unloading by the bill of lading. The bill of lading is the most important document in the maritime transport of goods, because it enables the commercial exploitation of cargo in transport, although the cargo is absent from the market. The bill of lading does not replace the contract of maritime transport, but it can be proof that the contract has been concluded. The rule is that the bill of lading is filled in based on the shipper's data. If there is a reasonable suspicion that the data provided by the shipper on the type of cargo, cargo markings, cargo quantity are not accurate or complete, and if the shipper is not able to check the accuracy of these data during boarding, the shipper should enter reasoned remarks in the bill of lading. If he does not do so, it will be considered that he has taken over such a burden as indicated in the bill of lading, and is therefore responsible to hand over such a burden to the recipient. The shipowner is obliged to issue several copies of the bill of lading at the request of the shipper, with the obligation to mark the total number of issued copies on each copy. The content of the bill of lading is prescribed by appropriate regulations. These are mandatory data on the shipper, shipowner, ship, cargo, its external condition, transport, data from the transport contract, etc. The bill of lading must be signed by the shipper, but in business practice it is often signed by the shipper.



represents a set of unique rules, systematized and marked with abbreviations that represent the usual conditions under which international trade is conducted. These abbreviations, also called delivery parities or foreign trade clauses, are included in international contracts for the sale of goods and are an integral part of the price. Of course, the price of the goods will not be the same if the seller is obliged to make the delivery to the buyer or to some part of the road by hiring a freight forwarder or directly the carrier, such as when, for example. the buyer is obliged to pick up the goods at the seller's premises. For these reasons, when concluding a sales contract, it is recommended that the seller and the buyer be referred to INCOTERMS 2010. By doing so, they precisely define their responsibilities and eliminate any possibility of misunderstanding.

It should be borne in mind that INCOTERMS 2010 refers exclusively to contracts for the international sale of goods. This means that they cannot be applied in contracts that have intangible goods as their subject (eg services or intellectual property), nor can they be applied in internal trade. INCOTERMS clauses (parities) are classified into 13 abbreviations, each of which consists of three letters.

INCOTERMS 2010 defines:

  • which mode of transport will be used,
  • who has the obligation to transport the goods and who bears the costs of transport,
  • where the delivery of goods will be made,
  • who has the obligation to insure the goods,
  • who performs export and who customs import,
  • when ownership and risk of goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

As it is a matter of foreign trade, the rule is that: export customs clearance should be performed by the seller (exporter), while import customs clearance should be performed by the buyer (importer), since each of them knows the valid foreign trade regulations in his country best.


Parities for all modes of transport:

EXW Ex Works (ex factory)

Main transport unpaid

 FCA Free Carrier (free carrier)

FAS Free Alongside Ship

FOB Free On Board (free on board)

Main transport paid 

CFR Cost and Freight (freight price)

CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight (price with insurance and freight)

CPT Carriage Paid To (freight paid until)

CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid to (freight and insurance paid up to)


DES Delivered Ex Ship

DEQ Delivered Ex Quay

DAF Delivered At Frontier (delivered at the border)

DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid

DDP Delivered Duty Paid



The documents used in customs procedures:

  • single customs document (hereinafter JCI)

The single customs document (hereinafter JCI) is a document used for the procedure of import and export customs clearance, as well as for the implementation of customs control over goods delivered or dispatched from the customs territory of Serbia and Montenegro or subsequently sent to another customs office. by road. JCI is filled in by the freight forwarder and submitted for certification to the competent customs authority at each crossing of the state border of Serbia and Montenegro in import and export, which is done after the inspection of goods.

  • summary declaration

The summary declaration is a standardized national document used for application customs goods.

  • customs value declaration (DCV)

DCV is legal form about value of imported goods one shipment in order for payment of customs duties and taxes (VAT).

  • shipment list

The shipment list is a form used as a descriptive part of the JCI for the transit of goods and forms an integral part thereof.

  • TIR carnet - an international customs control document, TIR carnet is based on the idea of simplifying customs procedures using certified vehicles that can be sealed. It enables the goods to be inspected only at the customs office of departure and arrival, and only the customs seal to be checked along the way at the border crossings, but not the goods in the vehicle.
  • ATA carnet - is an international customs document used to simplify the temporary importation of goods into a foreign country with a validity period of up to one year